Martin and Oliver Webb Fine Stone Miniatures. Museum quality handmade miniatures of stone carvings for the collector and connoisseur.
Catalogue No.31.

A Stonemason's Dictionary
A pocket dictionary of masonry terms, names and expressions

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Keystone: The central voussoir forming the top of the arch or vault

Kneeler: A bonding stone placed in a row of inclined stones, such as coping stones on a gable, to resist their downward pressure..


Lady Chapel: Chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, usually sited at the East end of the church

Lancet: A pointed arch whose radii are greater than the span. A window thus constructed is called a Lancet Window.

Leaf Tool: A small double ended pointing tool consisting of a thin handle with leaf shaped flat blades at either end.

Ledger: The horizontal scaffold poles running parallel to the face of the building, upon which rest the putlogs. Also a large inscribed flat slab laid horizontally on a memorial.

Lewis, or Lewis Pins: A lifting device for blocks of masonry consisting of two cranked pins attached to a steel ring. The pins are inserted into a hole cut in the top bed of the stone and a hoist can then be used to lift the block without ropes or slings which have to be removed from underneath the block.

Lias: A very fine grained and hard limestone, usually bluish grey in colour. A very good way to torture your tungsten tipped chisels…….

Lich Gate: Covered gateway to a churchyard where bier may be rested at a funeral.

Lierne Rib: Ribs in a vault which run from rib to rib (roof boss to roof boss).

Lime: The bonding element in traditional mortars, plasters, renders and paints. Lime has been used in building work since Roman times, only displaced in the latter part of the 20th century by Portland Cement and gypsum based plasters. Made by burning limestone (calcium carbonate) in a kiln, which produces quicklime (calcium oxide) which is then slaked (calcium hydroxide) by adding water. Lime products set slowly by absorbing carbon dioxide and reverting back to calcium carbonate. Lime can be hydraulic or non hydraulic, hydraulic lime absorbs carbon dioxide and sets unassisted. Non hydraulic lime has to have the addition of potsolamic material (crushed fired clay or crushed Lias type limestone) to make it absorb carbon dioxide and set.

Lime Bloom: A whitish bloom that appears on the face of masonry if lime-rich water has been insufficiently washed from the stone’s surface during fixing or pointing.

Lime Pit: A pit where freshly slaked liquid lime is left to stand until it has matured and acquired the consistency of soft cheese.

Limewash: A traditional paint made using slaked lime and various colourings, such as ochre.

Lintel: Flat beam above a window or door.

Light (of a window): The glazed area.

Loggia: Covered portico.

Louver: The sloping boards placed in belfry windows to keep out the weather but emit the sound of the bells.

Catalogue No.81.

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